References and Links to Published Works
This paper introduces a novel digital ticketing platform using blockchain technology. Taking in a number of considerations by observing legacy ticketing systems and existing attempts at digital ticketing, we make use of IBM's Hyperledger Fabric framework to design an architecture that distributes the tickets across all participating organisations. We note the potential benefits this platform has. Governing organisations maintain their right to set the rules of the platform and access the data to generate statistics. Vending organisations share access to the same underlying tickets whilst preserving competition. The platform offers passengers a variety of ways to pay for and access their tickets, using a combination of legacy and modern methods. Furthermore, we note the platform has the potential to eradicate paper ticketing and surplus voucher cards.
This paper addresses the problem of uploading large quantities of sensitive industrial data to a public distributed network by proposing a new framework. The framework combines the existing technologies of the distributed web and distributed ledger to provide a mechanism of encrypting data and choosing whom to share the data with. The framework is designed to work with existing platforms; the InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) and the Ethereum blockchain platforms are used as examples within this paper, though it is stated that similar platforms are capable of providing the requirements for the framework to operate. The framework uses the concept of the Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (DHKE), and is implemented in three different mechanisms of the DHKE: one-step Elliptical-Curve Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (ECDH); two-step ECDH; and Supersingular Isogeny Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange (SIDH). The paper discusses the security of each along with individual advantages and disadvantages, and concludes that the SIDH is the most appropriate implementation for future use due to it being post-quantum secure.
This paper presents three potential applications for blockchain technology within the railway industry: digital ticketing; logistics and supply chain processes; and distribution of data. Problems with existing systems are identified and alternatives based on blockchain technologies are presented as solutions. A mechanism for digital ticketing is introduced along with a chronological representation of the steps involved and the potential commercial considerations. Two public blockchain platforms (Ethereum and NEO) and one bespoke platform (Hyperledger Fabric) are proposed as commercial solutions for this particular use case. Furthermore, the domain of logistics and supply chain processes is identified as another area that will benefit from blockchain technology. The public platform VeChain is introduced as a commercial solution for this use case. Finally, issues with centralised data distribution are discussed, and blockchain technology is presented as a secure and distributed alternative.